Signal Processing in Biological Structures

              How Does Information Reach the Brain?


               How Does Selforganization Emerge?

                  Two different bio-information theories in confrontation

         Autoadaptation-Theory vs Correlation-Theory


 What means "Autoadaption theory" ?

   -   Neither points-in-time nor correlations nor deterministically measured data are existing

   -   There exists neither an "arrow-of-time" nor a "course-of-time", but only a "course-of-events".

   -   There is no "physical value". There are only values of "intensity" or "stimuli".

   -   Only "elapse times" t1, t2, t3.... tn  become passively/sensitively derived from phase transitions.

   -   Recently stored time-sequences get consecutively compared with previously stored time sequences.

   -   Therof: "autoadaption", auto-optimisation" und "self-organisation" is resulting


  What means "Correlation theory" ?


- point-in-time  t1, t2, t3.... tcorrelates to deterministically measured values  or data  x(t); y(t).




                            Read about one of the greatest patent- and invention scandal

                              in the history.  THE BIG THEFT.  Here is the documentation

                                             SENSOR TIMING / 1978 bis 2010




                 Autoadaptation Theory                                  Correlation Theory

     scientific-                             Sensualism (Mach)                                                           rationalism
      philosophical                       radical constructivism (v. Foerster)                                      realism
      background                          panpsychism (Rench)                                                        platonism
                                                  monismus                                                                         dualism
  fundamental                         sensoric information aquisition                                          deterministic or semi-deterministic
    principles                           There are neither points-in-time  t(n) nor                             information aquisition
                                               quantified measurement-values                                         Time discreet sampling of time-continuous
                                               Only elapse time patterns - deriving from                        signals - at any point-in-time t(n) - generates
                                               phase trasitions - get aquisited.                                        a measurement value featuring a real and
                                               "Information" is deriving in a secondary                           quantified "information".
                                               process by comparing and analyzing those patterns.





                                         Autocovariance function  (Wiener, Cleveland, Scalo)

      scientific /                   NASA Pat. US04392749 (Clemmons, 1981)                         Fourier, Shannon, Nyquist
      mathematic  &           Synergetic-Theory (Hermann Haken, 1971)                       Time discreet sampling of time-continuous

      technologic                  Autoadaptation Theorem (Bieramperl, 1999)                       signal amplitudes

      basis                             elapse time measurement

                                            time data comparation & covariance analyzation                Fourier-Transformation & -Analyse

                                      Pat. US 4245334Pat. AT 400028                                       before 1960:  FT und FFT-Analyse
      Researches               Pat  US 6172941                                                               since about 1963: Researches on digital
      in mechanistic &                         sampling of analog signal amplitudes by means
      technicistic                   ("Method to Generate Self-Organizing                           of  A/D-converters (Digital Signal Processing)
     application fields            Processes in Autonomous Mechanisms and                  some patents: US 3425054 (Cowan,1965)
                                             Organisms")                                                                            US 3619574 (Mindheim, 1968)
      literature & links                                                                                                             US 3384889 (Lucas, 1971)
                                                                                                                                           US 3940673 (Darlington,1973)
                                                                                                                                  few literature published,  until about 1970 research &
                                                                                                                                  development only in industrial & military hands, many
                                                                                                                                  inventors &  developers got expropriated and stolen;
                                                                                                                                  Since about 1972 wide approval in cybernetics,
                                                                                                                                  controlling & timing technology (Unbehauen, Caines)
                                                                                                                                  Since about 1980 known as "sampling technology" -
                                                                                                                                  a term used in computer-tech, measurement tech,
                                                                                                                                  communication technology, robotic und KI
                                                                                                                                  KI-main proponents are: Minsky, Hofstadter,
                                                                                                                                  Moravec, McCarthy, Searle, Burgard and many more
  Approach to            Pat. US 6172941 (Bieramperl)                                                  Christoph von d. Malsburg
    biological                                   ("The Correlation Theory of Brain Function")
   application fields       see also:  Gotthalmseder                                                     s. also:  Grinvald, Treisman, Katz, M. Callaway ..
    fundamental                The A.-theory  prevailingly considers the brain to be          C.-theory  prevailingly considers the brain to be a
    brain function              a phaenotypical generated "working memory" which         genotypical generated "program memory" consisting
                                         got the ability to log and store elapse-times deriving         of innumerable program parts (schemata), and which
                                         of phase transitions of signal amplitudes, generated          has got the ability to confirm randomly - via sensor/
                                         by receptory/sensory  stimuli. The time data get                 receptor - at a point-in-time t(n) aquired information
                                         compared in the synapses. If high probability of cova-       by means of postsynaptic ESPS or ISPS to evoke
                                         riance, a "confiming status" get produced via post-             either activating or inhibition (of muscles etc).
                                         synaptic EPSP or IPSP which either evokes activating
                                          or inhibition of connected nerve fibers, muscles etc.
                                         The synaptic CNS-system`s attribute is to generate                Time dependent correlation of informations can
                                         contineously new complex elapse-time-patterns which         change the "schemata" and generate new synaptic
                                         get stored and compared. Only found covariant patterns      connections.
                                         represent actual "information".                                               The C.-Theorie prevailingly denies any synaptic
                                         There is a tendency to improve pattern covariance-              storing of aquired information. The theory considers
                                         recognition contineously. Better and faster recognition        the generation of new synapses and neuronal
                                         otherwise improves adaptation, and optimizes the                connections als "program expansion" in relation
                                         phaenotyps` timing abilities. Consecutive generation          to new acquired information, for which processing
                                         of new synaptic and neuronal connections in the brain          the previos program is not complex enough.
                                         is likewise resulting of said tendency toward faster
                                         and improves pattern-finding and -recognition. (This
                                         is in a sense with Mach`s "thinking-economy".) 
                                         Generally, the A.-theory postulates: All what has got            Generally, the C.-theory postulates: All what has
                                         perceived in sensory/receptory manner has the nature          got perceived in sensory/receptory manner has
                                         of elapse times und is therefore NO primary & directly         the nature primary & directly processable
                                         processable measurement value or "information"!                measurement value or "information".
    Signal processing        The frequency of the AP`s (action potentials) or EP`s              According to C.-theory, the EP ("electrotonic
    in the brain                    (electronotonic potentials) - evoking from receptor cell          potential") or AP ("action potential" - which is
   (A short summary)        stimuli -  serve for the identification of those intensity-             propagating along the cell membrane or axon fiber
                                          ranges where perceived stimulus are presently occuring.      to a synapse, if a stimulus occurs) is serving for
                                          AP-speed (velocity of conduction along an axon-fiber)         the time discreet sampling of each receptory/
                                          determines the time-counting-rate with which the elapse     sensory-perceived time-contineous signal
                                          times get acquired and stored by the synapses. This is          amplitude; and it therefore it contains primary
                                          done via vesicle filling time, Ca++ions flux time, time           processable and quantified INFORMATION.
                                          the vesicle requires to move towards a pore at the para-
                                          crystalline vesicle-lattice and other significant time-            The synapses -  at which their presynaptic
                                          dependent synapse-parameters.                                              inputs the AP`s flow in - are prevailingly parts
                                          Each synapse represents a complex time pulse generator,   of a superior "program memory" that comprises
                                          time data memory, processor and time data analyzer.            the entire brain. They have no time-storing or
                                          The difference of a AP- or EP-velocity along an axon            analyzing function.
                                          fiber correlates to a different dynamic and/or relative           The  AP-frequency along the cell membrane or
                                          velocity of the temporar/spatial movement. (A stimulus          axons correlates with the present stimulus-
                                          can occur under varying dynamic and relative velocity            intensity at the neuron cell. (In consensus with
                                          between the receptor`s position and the object`s                     A.-theory).
                                         - respectively transmitter`s - position).                                       The C.-theory postulates correlation of increasing
                                          To enable the recognition of dynamic stimuli under               probability of exocytoses (release of neuro-
                                          changing temporar/spatial conditions, the synapse               transmitters into the synaptic cleft) with intensity
                                          adapts the time puls rate with which the elapse time get      of neuronal stimulus and higher AP-frequency.
                                          measured. In this way an autonomous adaption of                 But they cannot explain, why - though high and
                                          elapse time patterns becomes accomplished.                       constant AP-frequency - an exocytosis can in one
                                          If a presently aquired and synaptically stored elapse              case happen, in another case not.
                                          time pattern coincides approximately with an elapse-           According to C.-theory, differences of AP-
                                          time pattern previously acquired and stored,  the                    propagation-velocities in the cell membranes
                                          synapse releases the entire vesicle content (neuro-                (axons) serve for the synchronization of exocytoses
                                          transmitter molecules) into the synaptic cleft, which                in different - spatial separated - neuronal systems.
                                          triggers an EPSP or IPSP in the sub-synaptic membrane      "Temporal coincidence" (correlation) of exocytoses
                                          or nerve fibers. This causes e.g. activating or inhibition         shall generate new neuronal connections. In this
                                          of a muscle. The receptory/sensory signal amplitude            way, the short-term memory should be controlled,
                                          in this way got "recognized" by the brain.                               and "consciousness" should be generated.
                                          A multitude of such recognizing processes in different
                                          brain regions and synaptic time pattern hierarchies leads
                                          to "consciousness".
 Recent situation            The autoadaptation theory - described in US 6172941        Neuro-physiology und informatics during the 80ies
 regarding                        get more and more confirmed through the results of              has proven the origin thesis of the C.-theory
 verification/                   informatic science and experimental brain researches.          (based on shannons sampling), whereupon AP`s
 falsification                                                                                                                 are containing quantified information, to be untenable.
                                        Already in 1972,  D. Koshland /R. Macnab experimen-          All AP`s propagate along the cell membranes nearly
                                        tally proved that bacteria react upon temporal gradients,      congruent; independent of the signal amplitude course
                                        but not upon spatial gradients e.g. when they move away     of the stimulus.
                                        from an attractant (or towards to) - see L. Styrer`s                 Indeed, proponents of the C.-theory are often referring
                                        "biochemistry". Other literary sources are:                            that generation of information upon exclusive base of
                                     "Bacteria Appear to Send Message To Each Other"             sensoric v/t-acquisition (elapse time patterns) in the
                       field of artificial intelligence and robotics meanwhile
                                     Migrating birds navigate with inherent "watches" in co-           had not enough success. But they do not appreciate
                                     operation with extremely sensitive receptors. Their                  the fact, dass technicistic structures for elapse time
                                     brains measure temporar gradients, see:                                   representation of sensor signal amplidudes are
                                   inderlaying to biolog. systems in regard to real time
                               or:                  processing, redundancy,  sensor-reliability and
                                   nature/journal/v415/n6869/full/415318a_fs.html                        miniaturization. Advanced new processors based on
                                         The assumption, that the time structure of a stimulus           nano-tech with relevant features will prove elapse
                                         has an influence to the brain`s function, is not new.             time logging and analyzing futurely as superior.
                                         This idea came up in the 50ies and entered into science    Indeed: technicistic structures can never operate
                                         by the name "synchronization hypothesis" (D. O. Hebb,      competely free of redundancy; but the brain can.
                                         1949). But for a long time it remained without any
                                         proof. One reason for this deficiency was the scientific
                                         misinterpretation and mix-up of the terms "synchro-            A very impertant point in the verification of both
                                         nization" and "auto-adaptation".                                            theories is the fact of conscious TIME PERCEPTION.
                                         The difference of both terms got explicitly pointed out        How can TIME get perceived in the brain if no synap-
                                         in page:               tic recording of time intervals, respectively elapse
                                         In the 80ies and 90ies, Christoph v. d. Malsburg and           time takes place? The C.-theory has got no answer.
                                         W. Singer rediscovered Hobbs hypothesis and postu-           Because: with discreet sampling of signal amplitudes
                                        latet their "correlations-theory" on base of the con-               just THAT physical value cannot be measured and
                                        temporary mechanicistic signal processing knokledge....       quantified which is of MOST IMPORTANCE!
                                        The A.-theory, however, is a new revolutionary theory          On the other hand:
                                        that bases on advanced informatics knowledge. It can          If there is no synaptic recording of single elapse
                                        explain innummeral biological, neuro-physiological              times, where is time perception (in neurobiologic
                                        und psychological phenomenons, such like:                          sense) emerging from; as epi-phenomenon?
                                      "Neurogenesis in the adult is involved in the formation          genom research cannot explain or solve that
                                    of trace memories", see:                                                             questions in successful manner . See:
                                          " ..Circadian gene expression in liver and heart"
                                       "Determination of left–right patterning of an embryo"        Extensive%20and%20divergent%20circadian.pdf
                                        " Wie die inneren Uhren unseren Körper beeinflussen"
                                      "A zebrafish homologue of the chemokine receptor
                                Cxcr4 is a germ-cell guidance receptor":
                                    "Directionally selective calcium signals in dendrites of           Some peculiarities:
                                     starburst amacrine cells", see                                                At the German symposium "Time and Mind 02"
                                             the "nature of TIME" were discussed. Because
                          nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature00931_fs.html                    that problem were contemplated  from the point of
                                                                                                                                 view of correlationists, the results were unsatisfying.
                                                                                                                                            they wrote:
                                       The above mentioned auto-adaptive adjustment of            "beside this, the way and manner HOW time intervals
                                       synaptic elapse time counting rate to acquire stimuli-         get recorded and recalled by the brain, is recently
                                       patterns under relative movement and velocity too,            beyond our state of knowledge"
                                       (and to find covariant time patterns under dynamic           "Up to now it has not been clarified, whether for tempo-
                                        conditions) has been proven meanwhile through                 rary organization different but parallel occuring
                                        serious researches, see:                                                      events only ONE inherent watch is sufficient; or
                                  "Bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum-like          - if instead of this - the cooperation of a several
                                  mammalian dorsal cochlear..."                                                  inherent watches has to be taken into consideration"
                                (Waerden 1996)
                                                                                                                                  Fundamentalistic US-correlationists meanwhile even
                                                                                                                                 have critizied the manner of  information-acquistion in
                                                                                                                                the brain as being a "method of the Stone Age".
      consequences              Its applicability to molecular/atomar structures
     for the physical             speaks well for the auto-adaptation-theory.
   view of universe                         see e.g.:
                                            "Crystal remembers sounds"
                                           A wide range of consequences for the physical
                                           view of the universe has got pointed out in:
                                             (see last chapter).
                                             A.-theory postulates the existence of a
                                             universal teleological tendency in the universe
                                             that effects contrary to the 2. main sentence of
                                             thermo dynamics.
                                             Meanwhile some physicists have proven the
                                             existence of such a tendency in the micro-cosmic
      consequences              See last chapter of:
      for philosophy
      consequences             The autoadaption-theory does not support the
      in regard to the            maintained models and opinions of the trendy evolution
     theory of evolution        theory. Rather, the "intelligent Design"-theory (M. Behe).
                                        If a universal teleologic tendency to auto-adaption, auto-
                                        emolution or auto-optimization exists, such a principle
                                        would contineously retroact against "blind" selection
                                        and mutation (as a result of accidents)..
                                        The base-principle of auto-adaptation tries consecutively
                                        to improve and optimize the existant structures in the
                                        universe; and it eliminates emerging non-adaptive or
                                        redundant structures AT ONCE (and NOT under
                                        probalistic "permission" of innumeral declining structures
                                        for long periods of time - to find out the "most-adaptive
                                        structure" in evolutionary manner).


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